Sunday, June 3, 2012

წმინდა წერილის წმ.მაქსიმე აღმსარებლისეული ხედვა


   dRes, rodesac eklesiisaTvis yvelaze aqtualur amocanas warmoadgens sakuTari tradiciis yovelmxrivi gacnobiereba, raTa SeZlos Tanamedrove samyaroSi sakuTari adgilis povna da amiT TviT am samyarosaTvis marTebuli sulieri orientiris Seqmna, wminda maqsime aRmsarebelis saRvTismetyvelo memkvidreobis Seswavla erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi wvlilis Setana iqneba am miznis ganxorcielebis saqmeSi. mis SromebSi qristianuli moZRvreba filosofiuri eniT Tavisi gamoxatvis mwvervals aRwevs. samarTlianad aRniSnavs XIX saukunis erT-erTi dasavleli mkvlevari i. vezeri: “Tu odesme gaCndebian aRmosavleTis eklesiaSi qristiani filosofosebi, isini miiReben da aRadgenen maqsimes wavlebas”. maqsimes enisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia uaRresad rTuli terminologia, rac wminda mamas imisaTvis dasWirda, rom adamianur enaze gadmoeca saRvTo sibrZnis ufro Rrma Sreebi. amgvari mcdelobis Sedegad TviT misma nawerebma SeiZina saocari siRrme, rac ana komnenes sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, “mkiTxvelSi iwvevs Tavbrusxvevas”. qristianuli moZRvrebis WeSmariteba man ara mxolod qaRaldze melniT aRbeWda, aramed Tavis cxovrebaSi sakuTari sisxliTac. igi im periodSi moRvaweobda, rodesac mZvinvarebda monoTelituri mwvalebloba da is saimperatoro karis mxardaWeriT sargeblobda. wminda maqsime aRmsarebeli aseve did wminda mamasTan, romis pap martinTan erTad Tavdadebulad icavda marTlmadidebel sarwmunoebas, ris gamoc imperatori risxva daimsaxura: sastiki wamebis Semdeg (mas ena da marjvena mokveTes) igi gadmoasaxles dasavleT saqarTveloSi (lazikaSi), sadac 662 wels gardaicvala.

RvTismetyvelebis es korife Tavis SromebSi naTlad warmoaCens, Tu rogor aRavsebs qristianul moZRvrebas erTi ganuyofeli suli. erTi SexedviT Zalian daSorebuli Temebi, romlebic margalitiviT aris mimobneuli, misi kalmis qveS mSvenier mwyobrad lagdeba da TiTqos uxilavi xeliT erT Zafze asxams maT; aseT Zafad maqsimesTan RmerTisa da adamianis urTierToba gvevlineba, _ RmerTis gankaceba da adamianis ganRmrToba. amgvari sinTezuri azrovnebis erT-erT nimuSad warmovadgenT wminda werilis miseul xedvas.

wm. maqsimes xedvisaTvis amosavali principia wminda werilis rogorc RvTis sityvis gaazreba, ris Sedegadc wminda werili xdeba wminda samebis meore hipostasis atributebis matarebeli. aq Semodis RvTis sityvis, logosis gamocxadebis Tema, rasac maqsimes RvTismetyvelebaSi centraluri adgili ukavia. amitom, vidre uSualod miis moZRvrebis ganxilvaze gadavidodeT, saWiroa, mcire Sesavlis saxiT wavumZRvaroT sakiTxis Sesaxeb zogad-saeklesio swavleba.

saxarebaSi vkiTxulobT: “da aravin icis Ze, garna mamam; arca mamaÁ vin icis, garna Zeman, da romlisaÁ undes Zesa gamocxadebis” (maT. 11, 27; luk. 10, 22. ix aseve ioan. 1, 24). am adgils meore saukunis didi RvTismetyveli wm. irineos lioneli Semdeg ganmartebas urTavs: “Zis gamocxadeba aris mamis Secnoba, radgan yovelive cxaddeba sityviT”[1]. igulisxmeba, rom Cveneuli sityvac RvTis sityvis analogiurad moqmedebs: Cvens Sinagan zraxvebs erTmaneTs vucxadebT sityvis meSveobiT da is, rac aqamde dafaruli iyo erTis gonebaSi cxadi xdeba meorisaTvis sityvis warmoTqmisas. swored am mizniT movida CvenTan RvTis sityva, ufali ieso qriste, raTa Tavisi gankacebiT adamianis dacemuli bunebis aRdgenasTan erTad am bunebisave meSveobiT aRedgina RmerTsa da adamians Soris codviTdacemis Sedegad darRveuli komunikacia. amasTan dakavSirebiT wminda aTanase didi wers: “TviT sityvam miiRo sxeuli da gamoiyena adamianuri iaraRi, raTa sxeuli gaecxovelebina da, rogorc qmnilebaSi Seicnoba igi saqmeTagan, aseve emoqmeda adamianSi; yvelgan gaecxadebina Tavisi Tavi, araferi daetovebina misi RmrTeebisa da mis Sesaxeb codnisagan naklulevani”.[2]

davubrundeT maqsime aRmsarebels. igi uflis gankacebas ukavSirebs RvTis Semecnebis yvela saxeobas da masze afuZnebs mTel Tavis gnoseologiur sistemas. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom misi gnoseologia aris qristocentruli gnoseologia da garkveuli koreqtivi Seaqvs areopagituli korpusis mtkicebiT (katafatur) da ukuTqmiT (apofatur) RvTismetyvelebaSi. igi wers: “vinc mocemulobaTa mier mtkicebiTad RvTismetyvelebs, sityvas xorchyofs, radgan ar ZaluZs mas sxva ram gziT Seicnos RmerTi, rogorc mizezi srulhyofs sityvas, rogorc dasabamSi RmerTad myofs, radgan igi (Semmecnebeli, e.W.) veranairad verafrisagan, romelTa Secnobac ki SeiZleba, ver Seicnobs kargad zeSeucnobels”.[3]

axla vnaxoT, Tu rogor iyenebs wminda mama RvTismcodneobis am princips wminda werilTan mimarTebaSi: “RvTis sityvas xorci ewodeba ara mxolod imis gamo, rom ganxorcildeba, aramed imis gamoc, rom RmerTi-sityva, dasabamidan gaazrebuli martivad rogorc mama RmerTTan myofi da rogorc mflobeli WeSmaritebis im naTeli da SiSveli nimuSebisa, romlebic miemarTeba yvela [qmnil sagans], ar Seicavs Tavis TavSi arc igavs, arc saxismetyvelebas, arc Txrobas, rac alegoriul ganmartebas saWiroebs. magram rodesac RmerTi-sityva movida adamianebTan, romelTac SeeZloT SiSveli gonebiT Sexebodnen SiSvel gonismier [sagnebs], maSin ganumartavda ra maT maTi Cveulebis Tanaxmad, igi xdeboda xorci, romelSic SeerTebulia Txrobis [mravlobiToba], saxismetyvelebebi, igavebi da bundovani gamonaTqvamebi. rameTu Cveni goneba [sityvasTan] pirveli Sexebisas exeba ara SiSvel sityvas, aramed ganxorcielebul sityvas, anu gamonaTqvamTa siWreles, _ bunebiT sityvad myofs, magram xorcs garegnuli saxiT. amitom, igi, WeSmariti sityva mravals hgonia xorci da ara sityva. magram wminda werilis azri is ar aris, rac bevrs warmoudgenia, aramed gansxvavebuli ram. sityva xom xorci xdeba yoveli dawerili gamonaTqvamis meSveobiT”.[4]

aq unda SemovitanoT mcire ganmarteba: maqsime pavle mociqulisa da adreuli  eklesiis mamebze (gansakuTrebiT aleqsandriuli skolis mamebze) dayrdnobiT  uflis xorcis qveS gulisxmobs ara mxolod sakuTriv xorcs, aramed mTel adamianur bunebas gonismieri suliTurT. am SemTxvevaSi gamodis, rom wminda werili simbolurad Tavis TavSi moicavs mTel adamianur bunebas. marTlac, maqsime paralelebs avlebs wminda werilis semantikur struqturasa da adamianis ontologiur struqurebs Soris: “rogorc adamiani aris mokvdavi Tavisi xiluli nawiliT, xolo uxilaviT _ ukvdavi, aseve wminda werilic flobs, erTi mxriv, asos xilul warmavlobas, xolo meore mxriv, Seicavs masSi dafarul suls, romlis arsebobac waruvalia da romelic warmoadgens Wvretis WeSmarit sagans”.[5]

wm. werilis amgvari xedva mxolod maqsimes RvTismetyvelebis kuTvnileba ar gaxlavT. saxarebas uflis xorcs uwodebs jer kidev I-II saukuneebis mociqulebrivi mama  da mowame egnate RmerTSemosili. igi mogviwodebs: “miviswrafodeT saxarebisaken rogorc iesos xorcisaken”[6]. axali aRTqmis wignSi qristes Wvretaze saubrobs “sinur mravalTavSi” daculi qadageba, miZRvnili xarebisadmi, romlis avtoroba miewereba III s-is mamas wm. grigol sakvirvelTmoqmeds. isic aseve mogviwodebs: “xolo raJams aRmoikiTxvebodis saxareba, gina Tu samociqulo, nu wignsa mas xedav, nuca mkiTxvelsa mas, aramed zeciT gamo metyuelsa mas, rameTu wigni ars, romelsa-igi xedav, xolo qriste ars, romeli RvTismetyvelebiT iqadagebis”.[7]

gamoCenili RvTismetyveli, origene Tavisi egzegetikuri SexedulebebiT metad axlos dgas maqsimesTan da SeiZleba iTqvas, rom garkveuli TvalsazrisiT misi winamorbedia am kuTxiT. wm. werilTan dakavSirebiT igi iZleva sistemur swavlebas. erTgan igi wers: “sityva (igulisxmeba RvTis sityva.) werilebSi yovelTvis xdeba xorci da mkvidrobs Cvens Soris” (Sdr. ioan. 1, 14)[8]. origenec maqsimes msgavsad wm. werils anTropologiuri analogiis moxmobiT ganixilavs: “rogorc adamiani Sedgeba sxeulisagan, samSvinvelisa da sulisagan, zustad aseve werilic, RvTis mier adamianTa cxonebisaTvis moniWebuli, Sedgeba sxeulisagan, samSvinvelisa da sulisagan”.[9]

unda aRiniSnos, rom wm. werilis, kerZod, Zveli aRTqmis anTropologiuri dayofa gvxvdeba I saukunis iudevel filososfosTan, filon aleqsandrielTan.[10]

maqsime detalurad aanalizebs simbolurad wm. werilis adamianis agebulebis am Tu im nawilTan Sesabamisobas: “Zveli aRTqma Seadgens sxeuls, xolo axali _ samSvinvels, sulsa da gonebas. agreTve: mTeli wminda werilis, Zvel da axal aRTqmaTa sxeuls warmoadgens misi sityvasityviT [naweri]; suls ki _ dawerilis azri, romelic amave dros warmoadgens gonebis swrafvis mizans”.[11]

wm. werilSi sulisa da xorcis urTierTmimarTebis analogia ori saxiT gamovlindeba: erTi aisaxeba mis bukvalur doneze Zveli da axali aRTqmebis urTierTmimarTebaSi, xolo meore scildeba teqstis xilul mxares da mkiTxvelis goneba mis miRma gahyavs. orive analogia safuZvlad udevs wm. werilis saxismetyvelebiTi ganmartebis or saxeobas. pirveli maTgani aris saeklesio tradiciaSi sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli tipologiuri egzegeza. misi mizania, aCvenos Zvel aRTqmaSi sad da rogor aris moswavebuli macxovris gankaceba da saerTod axali aRTqmis wignebSi aRwerili movlenebi. igi warmoaCens mTeli Zveli aRTqmis winaswarmetyvlur daniSnulebas, romelSic adamianis momavali gamoxsnis saidumlo gacxadebulia miniSnebiTad, winasaxeebis meSveobiT (tupoj _ saxe, aqedan warmosdgeba am meTodis saxelwodebac _ “tipologia”).

am meTodis Camoyalibebas xangrZlivi istoria aqvs, misi safuZvlebi pirdapir, yovelgvari miniSnebis gareSe mocemulia axal aRTqmaSi. magaliTad, pavle mociquli Zveli aRTqmis rjulis daniSnulebas ase ganmartavs: “rameTu aCrdili aqunda rjulsa mermeTa maT keTilTa” (ebr. 10, 1). mis epistoleebSi tipologiis gamoyenebis mravali nimuSi gvxvdeba. erT-erTi uZvelesi patristikuli Zegli, romelic sagangebod eZRvneba Zveli aRTqmis wignebSi qristesa da mis macxovnebel moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebul ZiriTad movlenaTa winasaxeebis moZebnas da zogadi tipologiuri Teoriis SemuSavebas, aris “barnabas epistole” (misi avtoroba miewereba pavle mociqulis mowafes, barnabas, magram mkvlevarTa mier TariRdeba ara uadres II s-is I naxevriT). misTvis mTeli Zveli aRTqma misi istoriuli realiebis gareT gadis da ganimzireba mesiis pirveli movlinebis Jamisaken, romelSic aseve ganiWvriteba kacobriobis esqatologiuri perspeqtivis “pirvelnayofni”. bolos, “epistolis” avtori askvnis: “amitom, gvmarTebs, rom didad vmadlobdeT ufals, radgan warsuli Segvamecnebia da awmyoTi gangvabrZno, da momavlis umecarnic ara varT”.[12]

wm. maqsime aRmsarebelis egzegezis Tavisebureba swored am esqatologiur “pirvelnayofTa” Wvretisadmi gansakuTrebul yuradRebaSi gamoixateba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arcerT saeklesio mwerals ise ar ganuviTarebia wm. werilis esqatologiuri xedva, rogorc maqsimem. igi wm. werilis winaswarmetyvelur daniSnulebas mxolod Zveli aRTqmis wignebiT ar SemosazRvravs, aramed mas axali aRTqmis nawerebzec ganavrcobs da maTi winaswarmetyvelebis sagani, _ mas Semdeg, rac macxovris pirveli mosvla aRsrulda, _ aris uflis meored mosvla, xolo winaswarmetyveli, _ TviT ufali ieso qriste. wminda mama Zvelsa da axal aRTqmebs RvTis pedagogiuri mzrunvelobis or safexurad ganixilavs: “msgavsad imisa, rogorc rjulisa da winaswarmetyvelTa sityvebi, rac iyo logosis xorcieli mosvlis momaswavebeli, miuZRodnen suls qristesken, aseve RvTis didebuli logosi, ganxorcielebuli, gaxda Tavisi sulieri mosvlis (e.i. meored mosvlis) momaswavebeli, rodesac miuZRvis sulebs sakuTari gamonaTqvamebis meSveobiT misi cxadi da RvTivSvenieri [momavali] mosvlisaken”.[13]

wm. maqsime Zveli da axali aRTqmis zemoxsenebul or safexurs Soris xedavs imgvar urTierTmimarTebas, rogoric arsebobs RmerTis gankacebasa da adamianis ganRmrTobas Soris: Zveli aRTqma kacobriobas Seamzadebs uflis pirveli mosvlis, misi  gankacebis Sesaxvedrad, xolo axali aRTqma kacobriobas sTavazobs am gankacebis nayofs, _ adamianis gamoxsnas codvis tyveobisagan da mis ganRmrTobas, rac amave dros adamians Seamzadebs uflis meored mosvlisaTvis “am saukunis dasasruls, rodesac naTlad iqneba warmoCenili yvelas winaSe manamde eniTuTqmeli [saidumloebebi]”[14]. magram maqsimesTvis uflis meored mosvla ar aris mxolod momavlis movlena, aramed aris permanentulad aRsrulebadi aqti, romelic “xdeba yovelTvis da RirseulT saTnoebis gziT gardaqmnis xorcidan sulad”[15], e.i. ganaRmrTobs. rogorc vxedavT, maqsime “Rirseulebs” gamoyofs yvela danarCenisagan, maT Soris zRvars avlebs, ra Tqma unda, ara maTi bunebrivi monacemebi (uflis gankacebiT motanili xsna da ganRmrToba xom yvelasTvisaa gankuTvnili), aramed nebelobiTi Zalisxmeva, rac wm. werilTan mimarTebaSi realizdeba mis siRrmiseul wvdomaSi, masSi dafaruli momavlis saidumlebaTa SecnobaSi. aseTi “Rirseuli” mkiTxveli TiTqos droSi gadaadgildeba da uzenaesi winaswarmetyvelis mier nawinamZRvrebi TviTonac winaswarmetyvels emsgvseba, romelic momavals xedavs rogorc awmyos.

am dros mkiTxvelisTvis wm. werilis istoriul movlenaTa wrfiv qronologias arsebiTi mniSvneloba aRar eniWeba, yvelaferi xdeba aq da axla _ sulSi (Sdr. “gamocxadebis” avtoris mier “sulSi” Wvreta). amgvar xedvas, erTi mxriv, mkiTxveli Seyavs wm. werilis Sida, ufro Rrma SreebSi, meore mxriv ki, wm. werilSi aRwerili movlenebi da swavlebebi Seaqvs misi sulis siRrmeSi da adamians xdis wm. werilis istoriis monawiled (rac maqsimes qristologiur analogias Tu gamoviyenebT da am azrs ganvaviTarebT, qristes xorcTan ziarebas niSnavs, magram es calke sakvlevi Temaa). msgavs egzegetikur xedvas wminda makari egviptelTanac vxvdebiT, Tumca masTan amgvari xedvis esqatologiuri mniSvneloba ar Cans. makari wers: “mociquli ambobs: “ese yovelni saxeni SeemTxveodes maT; xolo daiwera samoZRurebelad Cuenda, romelTa zeda aRsasruli JamTaÁ moiwia” (1 kor. 10, 11). TuU CvenTvis iyo dawerili, yvelaferi sulierad unda gavigoT da ara iudaurad (igulisxmeba, rom iudevelebs bukvalurad esmodaT Zveli aRTqma, rac gaxda mizezi mesiis verSecnobisa.) anu xorcielad, radgan mociquli ambobs: “Sjuli sulier ars” (rom. 7, 14). ase rom, Tu daiwera sxvadasxva omebis Sesaxeb, daiwera boroti sulebis Cveni sulebis winaaRmdeg axlandeli uxilavi omebis Sesaxeb; an iTqva zogierTi ambis Sesaxeb imis gamo, rac saidumlod aRsruldeba Cvens sulSi. suliwmindam mravali sityva Tqva wminda werilSi qalaqebisa da sxva sagnebis Sesaxeb. yvelaferi daiwera imisaTvis, rac axla xdeba Cvens sulSi. Tumca im dros es xdeboda xilulad sinamdvileSi, magram sababad aiRo maSindeli yvela xiluli da istoriulad momxdari ambavi da Tqva imis Sesaxeb, rac momavalSi unda momxdariyo Cvens sulSi (e.i. axla)”[16]. wminda werili aris erTgvari sarke, romelSic adamiani Wvrets sakuTar sulis siRrmeSi warmoqmnil ufaqizes grZnobebsa da azrebs, da amave dros Wvrets gzas, Tu rogor unda gardaqmnas sakuTari azrebi da grZnobebi, raTa miuaxlovdes RmerTs da suli aiyvanos mis miuwvdomel simaRlemde. amitom maqsime am meTods uwodebs “ayvanas” (berZ. “anagogia”). es aris adamianis ganRmrToba, rodesac misi goneba maRldeba wm. werilis bukvaluri mocemulobidan, misi asodan, rac simbolurad aRniSnavs RvTis sityvis xorcs, masSi Cadebul gadataniT mniSvnelobamde, mis sulamde, rac aris TviT RmerTi-sityva[17].

Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania maqsimesTvis wminda werilis egzegezis es saxeoba, kargad Cans im mkacri kritikidan, rasac wminda mama Tavs atexs maT, vinc “miwebebulia mxolod wminda werilis sityvebs”. aseTi adamiani “borkavs [sakuTari] sulis Rirsebebs rjulisadmi xorcieli msaxurebis sakrvelebiT” da “misda samarcxvinod RvTis sityvas qmnis xorcad”[18]. Semdeg igi mas im farisevlebs adarebs, romlebic RmerTs emsaxurebian rjulis garegnuli aRsrulebiT. maTTvis “ufali ar amaRlebula mamasTan”, radgan “RvTis sityvas xorcieli [gansjiT] ikvleven”. magram “ufali avida mamasTan maTTvis, romlebic gamoiZieben mas amaRlebuli xedvebis meSveobiT”. rogorc vxedavT, wm. werilis Semecneba uSualod aris gadajaWvuli qristes Semecnebasa da msaxurebasTan. maqsime wm. werilisadmi am orgvari midgomis, _ bukvalurisa da sulieris, _ urTierTdapirispirebis mizezs kvlav qristologiuri xedvis konteqstSi ganixilavs: “Cven, qvemoT myofni, ver viTvisebT mas, romelic kacTmoyvareobisa da Cvens gamo Camovida qvemoT. magram rodesac masTan erTad avmaRldebiT mamasTan, davtovebT miwas da yovelive miwiers, raTa Cvens mimarT ar iyos naTqvami, rogorc gamousworebeli iudevelebis mimarT: “vidre-igi me mival, Tqven ver Ãel-gewifebis misvlad” (in. 8, 21)[19].

eklesiis mamebisaTvis bukvalizmi iseve miuRebeli iyo, rogorc istoriul safuZvels moklebuli alegorizmi. magaliTad, origenes oponenti da gadaWarbebuli alegorizmis mowinaaRmdege wm. meTodi olimpieli wminda werilis martoden bukvalur ganmartebas uwodebs “arasruls” da “koWls”[20], da TviTonve iZleva alegoriuli ganmartebis Sedevrebs mis SesaniSnav TxzulebaSi saTauriT “aTi qalwulis nadimi, anu qalwulobis Sesaxeb”. rac Seexeba did kabadokiel mamebs, vfiqrob, sakmarisi iqneba, magaliTad, Tu moviyvanT wm. grigol noselis Sexedulebebs. igi pavle mociqulis epistoleebSi xedavs pirdapir mowodebebs alegoriuli gamartebebisaken da saTanado adgilebis moxmobis Semdeg askvnis: "pavle Cven gadmogvcems erTian moZRvrebas, rom aucileblad asoze ar unda gavCerdeT, raTa is, rac erTi SexedviT Cans saTnoebiTi cxovrebis Sesaxeb naTqvamad, sxva mravali mniSvnelobiT ar iyos zianis momtani; aramed, piriqiT, unda gadavideT nivTieridan gonismier xedvaze, ise rom xorcieli cnebebi Seicvalos mniSvnelobisa da gaazrebis mixedviT mas Semdeg, rac xorcieli mniSvneloba mtvris msgavsad iqneba CamoferTxili”[21]. agreTve antioqiuri egzegetikuri skolis (rogorc cnobilia, es skola yvelaze metad iyo kritikulad ganwyobili alegoriuli ganmartebebis mimarT) udidesi warmomadgeneli wm. ioane oqropiric mimarTavs Rrma mistikuri xasiaTis alegoriebs TviT saxarebebis ganmartebebis drosac. Tumca, iSviaTad, rac savsebiT gasagebi iqneba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom igi ganmartebebs qadagebebis saxiT warmoTqvamda eklesiaSi ubralo mrevlis winaSe, romelic ar flobda raime saRvTismetyvelo ganaTlebas da rogorc grigol noseli basili didis martiv ganmartebebTan dakavSirebiT ambobs, “wuliladTRa maT gulisÃmisyofaTa Zalsa ver  miswuTebodes, kacni mdabioni da xuroni da mWedelni, mdRevarisa sazrdelisa morewasa Seqceulni”. am mxriv arc meore didi “antioqieli” netari Teodorite kvirelis ganmartebebi Camouvardeba oqropirisas[22]. magram unda iTqvas, rom antioqielebs ar uyvardaT sityva “alegoria” da mas termin “Teorias” (xedvas) amjobinebdnen[23]. ase rom, wm. maqsime aRmsarebelis egzegetikuri meTodi aranair gamonakliss ar warmoadgens, aramed, piriqiT, srul TanxmobaSia saeklesio egzegetikur tradiciasTan da mis Rirseul gamgrZeleblad gvevlineba. siaxle ufro SemoqmedebiT midgomasa da Rrma saRvTismetyvelo gaazrebaSi mdgomareobs.

maqsimesTvis wminda werilis bukvalur doneze gaCereba da mis miRma gasvlaze uaris Tqma adamianis mier ganRmrTobaze uaris Tqmis tolfasia, rac amave dros mTeli qristianuli moZRvrebis arsis uaryofasac niSnavs. wm. werili aris erTgvari garemo, romelSic adamiani da RmerTi erTmaneTs xvdeba da sadac maTi SeerTebis eniTuTqmeli misteria aRsruldeba. RmerTi Tavis logosebiT “eTamaSeba” (maqsimes terminia. ix. aseve wm. klimenti aleqsandrielis “padagogi”, 3.,.) adamianis gonebas da iwvevs sakuTari marad idumali mSvenierebis Sesacnobad; Tavis mxriv adamianic saRvTo codnisadmi, “gnosisisadmi” trfobiT anTebuli maradiulad uaxlovdeba sakuTar pirvelsaxes. amitom maqsime gansakuTrebiT xazs usvams  wm. werilis sulieri Sinaarsis, rogorc RvTis Semecnebis amouwuravobasa da dausruleblobas: “miuxedavad imisa, rom wminda werili asos mixedviT garSemowerilia da dasrulebadia im JamebTan erTad, romlebSic xdeboda istoriuli movlenebi, magram suliT igi yovelTvis garSemuwereli rCeba gonismier [saganTa] xedvebis gamo”[24]. maqsime imisaTvis, rom ufro meti sisavsiT warmoaCinos wm. werilis sulieri Sinaarsis simdidre da mravalferovneba, zogjer werilis erTsa da imave adgils ramdenime, erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul ganmartebas ukeTebs, zogjer ki erTi ganmartebidan meore ufro siRrmiseul gamartebaze gadasvlis win mkiTxvels Seamzadebs: “axla ki gadavideT sxva saidumlo ganxilvaze, romelic warmoaCens dawerilis dasabamier WeSmaritebas”[25]; an kidev: “gonismier xedvebis simaRleTa maZiebelisaTvis SesaZlebelia amis sxvagvarad ganxilvac”[26]. zogjer ki icavs e.w. disciplina arcana-s da saerTod dumils amjobinebs: “SesaZlebeli iyo sxvagvardac, ufro saidumlo da amaRlebuli azriT gangvexila es adgili. magram imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saRvTo dogmatebis yvelaze ufro gamouTqmeli [saidumloebebi], rogorc Tqven iciT, ar unda gamovitanoT saCveneblad, werilobiTi saxiT aRbeWdilad, davkmayofildeT imiT, rac ukve vTqviT”[27].

es yovelive kargi, magram sainteresoa, Tu rogor aRwevs egzegeti am “saidumlo da amaRlebuli azris” wvdomas. wminda mama Semdeg gzas gvTavazobs: “amis zedmiwevniT ganmarteba mxolod imaTi xvedria, romlebic gonebis siwmindis gamo zemodan miiRes sruli, ramdenadac es adamianebisTvis aris misaRwevi, sulis madli”[28]. e.i. amgvari xedvisa da ganmartebis unari mxolod zemodan madliT SeiZleba, mogveniWos, magram es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rasac kanti “wyalobismaZieblobas” uwodebda, aramed aucilebel winapirobad gonebis siwmindes moiTxovs. aq Cans marTlmadidebluri RvTismetyvelebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli RmerTisa da adamianis Tanamoqmedebis (berZ. “sinergiis”) principi, rac yvelaze kargad swored maqsimes SromebSi ikveTeba (mTeli misi brZola monoTelitebis winaaRmdeg xom qristeSi saRvTo nebasa da moqmedebasTan erTad misi kacobrivi nebisa da moqmedebis sisrulis dasacavad iyo mimarTuli). maqsimesTvis egzegetika aris ara ubralod wminda werilidan garkveuli informaciis gamotana, aramed, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, igi uSualad aris dakavSirebuli adamianis ganRmrTobasTan, da wm. werilis ufro saidumlo da amaRlebul azrs ganRmrTobis saTanado safexuri Seesatyviseba da maqsimec aRgviwers wm. werilSi wvdomis gziT adamianis ganRmrTobis etapebs: “RvTismosaobaSi adamianis ganswavlis dasawyiss axasiaTebs TiTqosda xorcieli Tvisebebi. radgan RvTis TayvaniscemasTan pirveli Sexebisas, Cven vecnobiT wminda werilis asos da ara suls. sulieri warmatebis Sesabamisad, ufaqizesi gonismieri xedvebiT ganvZarcvavT ra gamonaTqvamTa xorciel ganxSoebas, Cven vxdebiT wminda, ramdenadac es ZaluZs adamians, wminda _ qristeSi, raTa gvqondes mociqulTan erTad Tqmis Zala: “daRacaTuU vicodeT qriste xorcielad, aramed aw arRara viciT” (2 kor. 5, 16). cxadia, rom es xdeba gonebis sityvasTan martivi Sexebis meSveobiT, im fardebs miRma, mas rom mosavs, da es xdeba maSin, rodesac viwyebT sityvis Secnobas da warvematebiT misi rogorc mamisagan mxolodSobilis didebis SemecnebaSi”1. garda asketuri da zneobrivi siwmindisa, maqsime iyenebs e.w. pozitiuri mecnierebis inventars. igi zogjer mimarTavs wminda werilis kvlevis istoriul-kritikul meTodsac[30]. cdilobs daadginos werilSi moxseniebul pirTa da geografiul adgilTa ebrauli saxelebis etimologia, rac exmareba maTSi Cadebuli gadataniTi mniSvnelobis gakvevaSi; ariTmetikas iSveliebs sxvadasxva ricxvebis sulieri Sinaarsis amosacnobad, raSic eyrdnoba piTagorelebs. dialeqtikis ubadlo flobiT ki yvelafers mwyobri sistemis saxes aZlevs, Tumca, erTi SexedviT Wirs am simwyobris danaxva (gansakuTrebiT maTTvis, romlebic ar icnoben warmarTul berZnul filosofias). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maqsime aleqsandriuli saRvTismetyvelo tradiciis kvalobaze ormagi codnis (“gnosisis”) arsebobas aRiarebs: erTi mxriv, piradi mistikuri gamocdilebiT wm. werilis siRrmiseuli kvleviT miRebul codnas, meore mxriv, adamianis racionaluri mecnieruli ZalisxmeviT mopovebul codnas[31]. am ukanasknelis gaTvaliswineba metad mniSvnelovania Tanamedrove bibleistikis saeklesio tradiciis wiaRSi saTanado adgilis damkvidrebis TvalsazrisiT. maSin roca dRes wminda werilis rogorc rwmenis sagnis da misi rogorc mecnieruli, kritikuli kvlevis sagnis erTmaneTTan SeTavseba TiTqos SeuZlebeli Cans, wminda mamaTa mravalsaukunovani sulieri da mecnieruli gamocdileba sawinaaRmdegos gvimtkicebs.

wminda werilis maqsime aRmsrebeliseuli xedva SeiZleba, SevajamoT da saTanado daskvnebi gamovitanoT Semdegi saxiT. maqsimem aCvena wminda werilis ganuyofeli kavSiri samebis meore hipostasTan; wm. werilSi RmerTi da adamiani erTmaneTs xvdebian da esaubrebian axla da aq, rodesac ki adamiani xelSi iRebs mas da iwyebs kiTxvas; is, rac oci saukunis win moxda xelaxla aRsruldeba misTvis: uflis sityva qvemdabldeba, Camodis adamianamde anu xorcs isxams konkretuli pirovnebisaTvis gasageb cnebebsa da warmodgenebSi, _ es aris wm. werilis istoriuli Txroba, ris aRsaniSnavadac maqsime xSirad iyenebs termin “xats”[32]. magram, meore mxriv, “RmerTi gankacda, raTa adamiani ganiRmrTos” (wm. aTanasi didi), da RmerTi-sityvis istoriaSi gankacebis pasuxad iwyeba adamianis ganRmrToba misi pirovnuli Zalisxmevisa da suliwmindis madlis meSveobiT. aq SeiZleboda, gaCeniliyo garkveuli saSiSroeba individualuri spiritualizmisa, rac sakmaod xSiri movlena aris eklesiis istoriaSi (origenizmi, mesalianizmi). magram maqsimesTan ganRmrToba ar atarebs mxolod individualur xasiaTs, misTvis es aris ziareba esqatologiur realobasTan, rac aris sasufevelSi wmindanTa dasTan erToba da rac amave dros mudmivad cxaddeba miwier xilul eklesiaSi, gansakuTrebiT misi TviTgamoxatvis, evqaristiis aRsrulebisas[33]. maqsimesTvis suliereba mowyvetili ar aris istoriisagan, radgan esqatoni rogorc Jamis aRsasruli mxolod istoriasTan mimarTebaSi arsebobs. amgvarad wminda werilis istoriuli da esqatologiuri aspeqtebis erTianoba wm. werils rogorc RmerTis gamocxadebis wyaros da qristianobisaTvis WeSmaritebis kriteriums aTavisuflebs gayinuli statikurobisagan da mas uaRresad dinamiur xasiaTs sZens. wminda werilisadmi maqsimes midgomidan is daskvna SegviZlia gamovitanoT, rom misTvis ar arsebobs obieqturi WeSmariteba, romelic sruliad gulgrilia adamianis egzistenciisadmi, misTvis WeSmariteba mxolod pirovnulia da is Tavad aris pirovneba, Cveni ufali ieso qriste, romelic adamianis sulis ufaqizes moZraobebs exmianeba. aseTi xedva uflebas ar gvaZlevs saeklesio gadmocema da misi yvelaze myari birTvi, rwmenis dogmatebi mxolod istoriaSi davtovoT, rac “xilulia da warmavali”, aramed saWiroa, maTi bukvaluri “fardebis” miRma gasvla da maTSi sulieri CaRrmavebis (da ara uaryofis!) gziT misi mudmivi aqtualizacia da Tanamedrove adamianis cxovrebiseuli problemebze pasuxis Zieba.


[1] Св. Ириней Лионский, Творения, с. 329
[2] Св. Афанасии Александрииски, Слово о воплощении Бога-Слова и о пришествии его к нам во плоти // Восточые отцы и учители церкви IV века. Антология, с. 62
[3] wm. maqsime aRmsarebeli, saRvTimetyvelo Tavebi, Targmani ediSer WeliZisa // “gza sameufo” 1994, #1, gv. 21
[4] Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т I, с. 245
[5] Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т I, с. 167
[6] wm. egnate RmerTSemosili, epistole filadelfielTa mimarT, 5
[7] sinuri mravalTavi”, 24 gv.
[8] Ориген, О Священной  Писании / Восточые отцы и учители церкви III века. Антология, с. 148
[9] iqve, 148 gv.
[10] ix. Wolfson, H.A., The Philosophy of  the Church  Fathers, 20 p.
[11] Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т I, с. 166-167
[12] The Apostolic Church Fathers. ed. by Lightfoot, p. 354
[13] Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т I, с. 239-240
[14] iqve, gv. 240
[15] iqve.
[16] Преп. Макарий Египетский, Творения, с. 153
[17] sainteresoa maqsimes terminologiuri Tanxvedra mis ufros TanamedrovesTan wm. sofron ierusalimelTan, romelic erT-erT qadagebaSi, rodesac saubrobs Zveli aRTqmis rjulSi saxarebiseuli WeSmaritebis saxeobriv winamoswavebaze, aRniSnavs: “TviT igica sjuli mrCobl icnobeboda: romelsame missa aqunda Ãorcieli da wignisaÁ, xolo romelsame _ sityÂsaÁ da sulisaÁ”. xelnaweri H 1347, 330 v.
1 Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т II, с. 242
[19] iqve, gv. 243
[20] Св. Мефодий  Олимпиискй, Пир десяти дев, или о девстве /  Восточые отцы и учители церкви III века. Антология, т II, с. 401
[21] Св. Григорий Нисский, Изъяснение Песни песней Соломона, с. 6
[22] zogadad eklesiis mamaTa da gansakuTrebiT antioqiuri skolis egzegetikisaTvis ix. Breck J. Power of the Word. Tumca, Cveni azriT, masSi zedmetad aris dakninebuli aleqsandriuli skolis Rirsebebi.
[23] saxelganTqmulma antioqielma RvTismetyvelma Teodore mofsuetelma sagangebo Sromac ki dawera saTauriT “alegoristebis winaaRmdeg”.
[24] Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т I, с. 136
[25] Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т II, с. 158
[26] iqve, gv. 123
[27] iqve, gv. 62
[28] iqve, gv. 163
1 Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т I, с. 246
[30] saTanado magaliTebisTvis ix. Преп. Максим Исповедник, Творения, т II.
[31] codnis Sesaxeb aleqsandriuli skolis koncepciisaTvis ix. Stephenson, S.J.,  St. Cyril of Jerusalem and Alexandrian Christian Gnosis // Studia Patristca, v. I, p. 148
[32] ix. Thunberg, L., Man and Cosmos, Vision of St. Maximus the Confessor, p. 162-163.
[33] gavixsenoT wirvis dasawyisi sityvebi: “kurTxeul ars meufeba mamisa da Zisa da wmindisa sulisa”, aseve “anaforas” erT-erT locvaSi aResruleba uflis meored mosvlis “gaxseneba”. am TemasTan dakavSirebiT ix. Протоиерей Александр Шмеман, Евхаристия; John Zizioulas, Being as Communion. aseve misi statia: J. Zizioulas. Towards Eschatological Theology.

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